Diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease using by light

Doctor Collingwood said researchers at the University of Kiel had used in their project from a synchrotron accelerator has been launched at Hartwell in the area of Oxford shire, Great Britain. A device that is used is a circular shape and in the size of five football playing field.

This machine attacks to particles by speed that is a little less than the light speed and gathered them in one place, and makes them as a light rays that their diameter is less than a unit cell.

With this technique researchers can identify iron levels in each of the brain cells that are affected by Parkinson. Doctor Collingwood says by using these techniques they could check human’s tissues with such precision that as its result, determining the amount of iron in and around of each unit cell is made possible.

He expressed his hope that these findings will help doctors to detect early signs of Parkinson’s disease using by MRI. Doctor Collingwood says: “early diagnosis is important because we know when complications associated with the disease appear, is when that chemical changes caused to death of vulnerable motor neurons”.

 

How much exercise is necessary to lose weight?

250 minutes of exercise per week may eventually leads you to weight loss and 150 minutes of exercise per week help you to maintain your desired weight. According to Translations team of “Health News”, adults need at least 250 minutes of exercise per week. Its mean 50 minutes of physical exercise in 5 days a week is enough to reduce the weight.

If all your efforts after  lose weight, is maintain the desired weight, 30 minutes of exercise a day (150 minutes per week) would be a good value and prevent of weight gain.

The reports say that stretching is very important in sports because it helps to reduce the fat mass. Weight’s control is an important public health issues these days. It is said that over 66% of people in America are overweight or are obese and also reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and so on will be at stake of weight loss.

 

Migraine during pregnancy leads to risk of stroke

Specialists warn that the incidence of migraine headaches during pregnancy can leads to risk of stroke. According to the new study that its description is published in the journal of “British Medical”, the migraine during pregnancy could be a clue that indicates that mother is face with risk of stroke, heart disease and blood clots.

A team of researchers led by Doctor Cheryl Bushnell, neurologist at Wake Forest University in North Carolina, America, in this study used of earned data from the 18 million American patients. These patients were discharged from the hospital between 2000 and 2003. These researchers found that 44 thousand pregnant women patients are hospitalized due to severe headache migraines.

In this group a strong correlation was observed between the incidences of stroke, heart attack, high blood pressure and known during pregnancy dangerous disease with name of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a state of preterm intoxication that may leads to the seizure of pregnancy.

This state is including the seizures and coma, and rarely alone coma that occurs in pregnant women shortly after birth and is associated with high blood pressure and the emergence of albumin in the urine. It is emphasizing in this study that those pregnant women who have such these headaches, should have been under the supervision of a specialist more precise and more regular in this respect.

 

 

Non-normative massage of neck is the cause of stroke

American doctors warn that damage to the neck due to non-normative massage can leads to stroke. Doctor David Palestrina from “Cedars-Sinai” Medical Center of Los Angeles, said: when the neck is damaged for any reason, it leads to create the small clips on the wall of the carotid or vertebral arteries waist and at the same time, blood clots may form in the mentioned veins and if the clot be pulled from its place, reaches to the brain and leads to blockage of the arteries and stroke.

Palestrina also noted that smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking drugs without a prescription are major causes of stroke and pregnant women in particular should be more vigilant than others. Because those women over 30 years who smoke or are taking birth control pills containing high doses estrogen are at risk for stroke 22 times higher than others. Also, stroke is the third cause of death and the first cause of physical and mental disabilities among adults.

 

Deficiency of vitamins causes to asthma

As a result of British scientists’ research that have done over the past 30 years, show that lack of vitamin A and C can increase the risk of asthma. Nottingham University’s research team concluded in their study that the risk of asthma in people who are faced with a lack of vitamin C is 12%.

There is still uncertainty about the effectiveness of deficiency of vitamin A, but according to researchers, there is a significant correlation between it and asthma.

Medical Research Council in Great Britain and research organization with name of “Asthma Great Britain” has said that more research is necessary in this case.

Those Researches that has been done in the past had different results. In this study, researchers had studied the published reports in 1980 on both children and adults.

They did not find an association between vitamin E with asthma, but according to researchers, in the case of vitamin A and C, there is a significant relationship.

Although the effect of vitamin A in cheese, eggs and fatty fish is not yet clear, but the researchers say people with severe asthma consume less than half the recommended amount of this vitamin.

Doctor Joe Leonardo B, the leader of this research’s team has said that now research must be done in the broader scale to see how far is this relationship exactly and if at all there is a direct link between vitamin deficiency and asthma or not.

Glenhis Jones, a nutritionist at the Medical Research Council said the test result is very interesting but is incomplete. He said: “Many factors such as smoking, exercise, and social-economic status are not considered “.

 

 

How work the Stop-Start system?

Not long ago it was said with certainty that ignition and starting the engine consumes more petrol than its situ working. It is true that a cold engine consumes more fuel than normal, but if the motor is been reached already to the required temperature, turning off and then turning on does not burn a lot fuel.

That’s why automakers have developed a system that limit the time of situ working automatically. It is better to know; at first in 1983 the Volkswagen produced the stop-start system (stop-motion) by participate the Polo Formel E company. This hybrid system works similar to petrol-powered cars. When the car is stopped, the car’s computer will stop the fueling and sparking the plug.

When the driver takes his foot off the brake or takes the clutch, the engine starts up again. of course, the starter system must be strong enough to tolerate the switching on or off. On the other hand, the battery should be healthy and strong to satisfy the electrical needs of car when the engine is off. In coming down from the steep hills, stop-start system also can be converted into simple solution to reduce the fuel consumption. In 2008, Mazda was tested the Smart Idle Stop System or briefly (SISS). This system continues to work without relying on the engine.

SISS can manage alternator in a way that stops four-piston while working.

Thus in the restarting, the cylinder is in a compression state and will require much less fuel and can produce enough power to adjacent cylinders to reach the compression.

Adjacent cylinder will receive the normal fuel, and its ignition will move the crankshaft in the right direction. Unfortunately, this great idea never went to the produce line and Mazda went to i-stop system that was installed on two-liter petrol engines making by Mazda in Japan and Europe. This system had used of fuel explosions method to help the re-combustion, thus, the pressure reduces the start time and restart time in half (as the claim of Mazda about 0.35 seconds).

Ford recently announced that the stop-start system of this company that is installed on some sedan and SUVs model 2012 has this ability to reduce the fuel consumption by up to 10 percent. On the other hand Mazda that cares more to reduce the fuel consumption, claims Mazda 3 that is equipped to i-stop system just reduce ten percent the fuel consumption.

However, those Mazda that are imported into the United States will not equip with stop-start system until this system was presented as part of a special package of reduced fuel consumption.

The Canadian marketplace is a market that stop-start system can achieve to success. In Toronto there is a rule which according to it the working situ the boats, cars and even buses more than one minutes has $ 5,000 penalty. Maybe this rule requires to officers are stationed in every corner of the city, but legislators’ trying to reduce the fuel consumption is appreciable.

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The technology of OLED lights in the BMW

BMW was the first company that applied the laser light technology in its production cars. But at CES, this company in addition to improving these lights also disclosed the OLED technology for taillights of car.

To show these technologies, it have been used a concept BMW M4 and has awesome effect without certain changes and only by using the new lights. BMW has chosen Iconic Lights or symbolic lights for this technology.

Front laser lights make bright in light mode up to 600 meters of the path without causing glare and negative impact on the opponent drivers. As well as, the dynamic detection system of this car with a camera scan the road ahead of the car and detect any pedestrian or animal’s in the roadside.

The rear lights also have color, three-dimensional look and are very attractive and spectacular. BMW for this exhibition has provided other technologies such as automatic parking system for the i3, the next generation of iDrive system with the motion gestures and M4 Coupe with new lights.

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What should to do when bursting tires?

Bursting the tires while driving is extremely dangerous and knowing that how to act in such crucial condition is determinant. Even in dangerous situations, it can save a person’s life.

Colonel Cyrus Kasra, the police chief of the Northern of Fars Province is discussed in a note about the things that drivers should note them when tires burst.

This note says:

The first reaction of human when occurrence with danger is instinctively and when we confronted with risk, we being far away from danger unconsciously or we remove the dangerous. In the dangerous moments of driving, our instinct also works the same way.

But our advice is that when bursting or punctures the tires, as far as possible act contrary to your instinct or in other words, controls your instincts. Read these following precautions to save your life and your companions’ in critical situations of driving.

  • Like other emergency situation, the key point is to keep calm to make your condition under control.
  • Staying your car on the track is dependent on the four connection point of tires with road surface, and when you lose one tire, not only you has lost the 25% of car’s connection with surface, also leading approach and driving are changed.
  • Sometimes, puncturing the tires causes that you can’t control the car’s path, in such this situations, don’t rotate the steering to a specific side. By this way, you can control the car easier.
  • An important thing that you can do is this take back control the car again; stop your car on the road, control the route of car and do not allow the car to divert from its original path.
  • Hold steering with both hands. Focus on path ahead and at the same time find the safest way out by looking in the mirror.
  • Your reaction is determinant in the initial moments. Do not remove your foot from the accelerator pedal; it makes that much of the weight of car is transferred from the rear tires to the front tires.
  • If you feel that the car is strayed of its path, tap it gently rather than take your foot off the accelerator pedal, by doing this, you can control the car’s speed, and also increase the speed gradually. As I said in the beginning, it is against your instincts, but if they do not do it in the first few moments, gaining the control again will be very difficult.
  • Do not brake. If your front tires are damaged, suddenly brake is leading to increasing the weight and moving the car on the front wheels and worse thing that wheel rim being bare completely. If rim of wheel being bare, the car may be deviate to the flat tire or wheel rim goes down in the asphalt and causes to reversal of car.
  • If your car’s rear tires is punctured, sudden braking gets hard the car’s forward movement. In this case driving the car will be very difficult and possibly the car will be diverted.
  • If the car and traffic conditions allow, try to direct car slowly to the roadside and Stop It. While so be sure to sign to the other driver by your hand.
  • Remember this point that in this situation your target is to stop the car with a controlled way and in a safe place in the road.
  • When you had stopped the car in a safe place, Engage the parking brake and turn the warning lights on.
 

The most common defects of car’s steering system

  • In the first step we just check out the tires. But this time the pressure of them is not much important, but tread and abrasion of them is very important and can be the reason of fault. The front tires are very important. Tread of tire, their quality and their placement can have more impact on many parameters. Even the difference between tread of left and right tires can shake somewhat the wheel. So be careful in the quality of your car’s tires to stay away its complications.
  • The second point that we have to care it, is being balance the front wheels. Unbalance in the tire can easily shake the steering wheel and even if you do not fix it, the steering system is also faced with unpredictable defects.
  • Shaft balance, as its name suggests, is used to stabilize the car. This shaft has a specific shape and connection way on the head of screws, divides the torque between two wheels and prevents the car too much bending on one side. This shaft is held by two sturdy Bush. In the case of malfunction of Bushes the steering wheel will vibrate. Balance shaft Bushes play an important role in quietly working of suspension and steering system.
  • But another part that has important role in steering system is wheel bearing that its destruction can cause to a lot of defects, including the steering wheel vibration. The destruction wheel bearing has special sound which could be effective to realize its defect. Note, the wheel bearing adjustment is very important and has significant role in the life time of the bearing and its function.
  • Shock absorber plays the main role in the road hits and fluctuations control in the suspension system. This piece that can contain many defects and problems (usually repairmen fix it by replace by new piece) If breaks creates a lot of problems. Sometimes the steering vibration is due to shock absorbers extreme fatigue that has not necessary strength and vibration is transmitted to the steering system and the wheel. Sometimes losing the shock absorbers also creates additional voice and cause to steering vibration as well.
  • Seebeck is also one of this defect’s factors. When Seebeck is corrupted and cannot do its joint motion properly, this defect is emerged out. Seebeck shouldn’t have any movement in line with the Y-axis. Seebeck should not have much vertical movement. Permitted looseness of Seebeck in perpendicular is too small that couldn’t feel by hand. So loosening and destruction of Seebeck cause to vibration of steering.
  • The adjustment of steering angle is very impressive in the steering vibration. So if your steering vibrates, as soon as possible do a steering wheel adjustment.
  • Sometimes destruction of connections and over losing them also creates this problem that has been fixed with a wrench and regains control.
  • But sometimes the steering wheel vibration occurs only in braking that is due to the brake discs’ defect. When the disk has warped, so this state is seen when braking. You have two ways to fix this defect: You must first measure the disc diameter. If it was in require extent, so by lathing and removing a thin layer of the disk, this defect has been fixed. But if the disc’s diameter be low, so it must be changed. Another problem that is seen in car’s steering system is deviation of car to one side in straight path. When you’re moving in straight lines, if drop the steering for a few moments, the car tends to be out of the straight path and technically it called that steering takes a position. Steering fittings and wheel angle adjustment can cause to this problem. So also control them.
  • But one of the main reasons of this defect is chassis. When the chassis hurts of one side, the basic configuration of factory and dimensions of the chassis disrupt rapidly. Bring it back to its original state is very difficult, and sometimes it doesn’t handle correctly. A car that its chassis’ state is changed by accident, quickly will find the problem in the steering system. Steering and its belongings that are also depended to the steering system are corrupted so fast and gets trouble. Dragging the steering to one side, rapidly deteriorating of Pelosi, tearing the duster and totally, destruction of steering system is the complications of these cars. So before buying a used car be sure of CHASSIS’ health.
  • The role of pitman arm

This arm that has played a key role in steering system, in case of damage is caused to pulling the steering wheel to one side. Do not worry the price of this piece is not high.

  • Spring in the suspension with assistance has the role of blows absorption. This shock has specific energy absorption factor that must be considered. Sometimes, when the spring gets tired, impressed the car navigation system and pulls the steering wheel to one side. Simply a spring gets weak and can’t absorb the power. So it should replace. The spring has no price.
  • Sometimes, brake system defect causes to this problem. Braking force should divide equally between the wheels. This allows at the braking time each wheel be affected of braking force equally. Now imagine this force doesn’t divide equal and a wheel is a little under more pressure. As a result of changing the revolution is done quickly and the steering is deflected to one side. In such cases, the car and its brake systems should be shown to a skilled brake maker. Maybe, a brake pump of a wheel has lack of spinning balls and doesn’t able to correctly brakes. The treat of this is opening the brake pumps and washing the bushes to move quite fluently.
  • The other defect is abnormal noise in suspension system. So that when you fall in every bump, the knocking sound or any other sound is heard from suspension system. Sometimes, when you shake your car by hand, you hear additional noise from the suspension system. Such these additional noises indicate destruction in suspension system that is easily fixable.
  • Shock absorbers should not be too stiff or too soft. Also, after shrinking, it should returns to its original state calmly. Therefore, before anything shock absorbers function should be controlled. In these cases, usually shock absorber gets replace. Seebeck abrasion and its oil-free working as well as are cause to these noises. Seebeck usually cannot be repaired. Because it is built as pressed. But it is easily replaceable.

Losing the balance shaft and its collision with other parts of car makes excessive noises too. Confusing the car is a thing that almost all of us grapple with it.

This is also one of the most common defects that has own reasons. Once again we return to the Balance shaft. If the shaft being weak and couldn’t absorb the power, so the car being confused easily. The Suspension system and shock absorbers are cause to car confusing when being weak.

 

Operating principle of ECU

In the injection cars, there is a piece that is called ECU (Electronic Control – Engine Control Unit). ECU is a Micro Computer.

Like the other computers, this has a CPU, two permanent and temporary memories and has a plan. This piece is located inside the chamber of engine and in other words is brain of an injector car and can receive the information as live and simultaneous from various sensors including: around sensors of PRM, pressure sensor inside Manifold or MAP, Throttle Sensor or TPS, Coolant temperature sensor or CTS, air temperature sensor or ATS, oxygen or Lambda sensor, impact sensor and etc… and is responding to outputs such as: injectors, spark and more by analyze the moment situation of engine. Sensors are injection kits that if their number be more, the car works better. ECU determines the quality of car’s engine.

ECU evaluates the engine operating conditions based on those sensors that are attached to it and sends appropriate commands to injectors and spark plugs. Because the car’s dynamics is very complex and non-liner, so ECU designers put some tables with name of map into the memory of ECU which the amount of fuel injection, advance angle in each round, and engine load have been specified. Whatever the accuracy of these tables is been more, the ECU will be more accurate.

It should be noted that values of these tables directly depend on the geographic parameters of the engine, like the air temperatures and pressure.

All automotive electronic components have an output that in case of possible defects sends a signal to the central controller or ECU. After receiving the error signal, ECU piece reports it in the form of DTCs to the Diagnostic devices and turns on the Diagnostic lights to inform of driver. Error codes are reported to the central processor of ECU, as well as reports are offered to the Diagnostic device and repairman can easily see the defects of car.

One of the solutions of car repair by ECU:

The day discussion about the car’s ECU is tuning that generally is done in two ways:

  • Reading the ECU data (map) and loading the new information that many companies had study about it, including: Autospeed, Tech TV, Chip Tuning, Eurochip, and etc… One of the drawbacks of this method is high dependence on ECU structure and by being complex the ECU hardware, reading and modifying the data is being difficult and more times is being impossible. The only solution for how to access to information is from the ECU manufacturer.
  • Adding an external hardware to ECU is in order to the change of ECU parameters. Although this method is not economical, but it is not dependent on the type of ECU. One of the companies that are active in this field is the Dastek Company. This company is located in South Africa and has about 30 people staff. It has achieved remarkable success. The name of the Dastek Company Product is UNICHIP.

The operating principle of UNICHIP is such that reads the main sensors in an engine fuel injection (MAP, RPM) and then according to engine operating point, applies allowed values of these two sensors to the ECU, as the function of ECU gets better.

Statistics show that success of UNICHIP has been very high in this field: Of every 400 car, just a car may not be the optimal with UNICHIP, 80% of cars that are used in South Africa had installed UNICHIP in their cars. UNICHIP have been performed on more than 320 engine models from major automakers in world.